Richard L. Peterson, M.D.

Private Practice Psychiatry

San Francisco, CA

November 26, 2004



The Healing Psychology of Yoga


Five months ago I completed 24 years of school – 12 years of primary and secondary school, then 4 years of university, followed by 4 years of medical school, and capped off by 4 years of psychiatry residency.  I practiced yoga intermittently (once a month or so) during the past six years.  It was a recent two-month trip to the Ashtanga Yoga Research Institute (AYRI) in Mysore, India that compelled me to start thinking deeply about how practicing yoga can heal the brain, body, and mind. Because of my long education in medicine and limited yoga practice, I’m biased towards understanding yoga’s healing effects through the lens of Western psychology and medicine.  This article is written from the perspective of a western scientist who is a novice yoga practitioner.


Yoga and western medicine


There is an accumulating body of scientific evidence documenting the many benefits of yoga practice.  On a physical level, researchers have found that yoga practice can reduce symptoms and signs of carpal tunnel syndrome[1], asthma[2]-[3], high blood pressure[4], osteoarthritis[5], heart disease (with a net reduction in arterial plaques)[6]-[7], hyperglycemia and diabetes[8], fibromyalgia[9], irritable bowel syndrome[10], and physical fatigue and tension[11].  Yoga may also reduce seizure frequency in epileptics (there are conflicting reports)[12]-[13] and improve fatigue symptoms in multiple sclerosis sufferers[14].


Physical risks of yoga include hyper-flexion and over-extension of joints, resulting in ligament and tendon sprains, strains, and tears, although there is no medical literature available (and one recent New York Times article[15]) to support this.  There are case studies of vertebral and basilar artery tears in yoga students doing neck manipulations[16]-[17].  Similarly vertebral artery tears have been reported due to various “activities [of] rapid head turning, tennis, yoga, and vigorous exercise” in addition to volleyball and rollerblading[18].


On the psychological level, yoga has been repeatedly shown to improve mood, confidence, and attention.  Several surprising studies show that yoga has equal or greater effectiveness in improving mood, confidence, and attention as aerobic exercises such as swimming and dancing[19],[20],[21],[22].  Yoga, including a spirituality component, has been shown to reduce stress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and anger[23].  Because yoga is a form of moving meditation, it may be inferred that meditation’s many physical and mental benefits also may be obtained through yoga practice.  Please see my meditation article for a full list of documented benefits.


From my own experience and that of others I have spoken with, the mental benefits of yoga also include reduced rumination, intellectualization, and distractability as well as an increased sense of well-being, confidence, and clarity.   On the emotional side, practitioners report decreased impulsivity, irritability, lustfulness, and worry, and they feel increased emotional stability, comfort with themselves, and patience.  Physically the benefits are obvious (Madonna is an excellent example) – improved muscle tone, strength, flexibility, and skin radiance – and decreased weight (if one is overweight).  Yoga won’t change your personality, but it will reduce your reactivity to everyday irritations, disappointments, and impulses.


From conversations with other yogis and recent research (see endnotes), the signs and symptoms of anxiety[24], depression[25], attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)[26], addiction[27], and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)[28] are reduced by regular yoga practice.  Additionally, one’s self-confidence and patience increase with a regular practice.  Yoga is prescribed for all types of mental illness in India, and I suspect that it is a good treatment even for mild psychoses.  Naturally, one has to be able to set aside the time and space to practice yoga everyday, and for some people with severe mental illness, logistics and will-power may be prohibitively difficult.




The beneficial effects of yoga on mental health may be occurring through the process of “neuroplasticity.”  Neuroplasticity refers to neurons’ tendency to change their structure and function in order to adapt to the demands of new environments.  For a pianist, the neurons coordinating and controlling rapid finger movements will be more extensively networked than the same neurons in the brain of a non-pianist.  This extensive neural networking occurs over time, due to practice and concentrated use.  People who do not practice the piano will not have extensive networking of these neurons.


Similarly, if one is practicing sustained attention on a daily basis, then it is probable that the neurons that help us to sustain attention and resist impulses will be strengthened.  Scientists recently found this to be the case with compassion.  Brain scans (functional MRI) of Tibetan monks who have practiced greater than 10,000 hours of compassion meditation were compared with those from a group of novice meditators.  The monks’ brains showed greater activation in brain areas related to positive feelings (left pre-frontal cortex) and less activation in areas associated with negative emotions such as anxiety and anger (right pre-frontal cortex) than did the novice meditators[29].


Additionally, Tibetan monks showed greater gamma wave activity, associated with consciousness, than novice meditators.  These gamma waves may be a measure for overall awareness.  “That opens up the tantalizing possibility that the brain, like the rest of the body, can be altered intentionally. Just as aerobics sculpt the muscles, so mental training sculpts the gray matter in ways scientists are only beginning to fathom. [30]  In the case of yoga, the sculpting is through both physical and mental means.


Yoga history


Yoga is the product of thousands of years of experiential research and philosophical discourse by millions of practitioners.  The main precepts underlying yogic practice have been passed down both verbally, physically, and textually from teacher to student since 1000 BCE.  The major ashtanga yoga text is the Yoga Sutra of Patanjali.  According to Patabbhi Jois – the founder of AYRI - it takes ten years of daily yoga practice just to be ready to undertake teaching yoga.  Much of the learning is experiential and very subtle.


Reading the yoga texts themselves can be a bit daunting.  There are Sanskrit words scattered throughout in-depth commentaries on somewhat arcane philosophical concepts.  Yikes!  It’s not easy to figure out.  Naturally, some westerners have devised  simplifications of the basic messages of yoga theory, and these “Yoga for Dummies”-type compilations make it much easier to understand.  In the end we must learn through practice – “Do your practice and all is coming,” Pattabhi Jois says.  In that spirit, I’m going to comment on the physical nature of yoga practice and how it affects one’s mind over time.


Yoga defined


“At the heart of all meditative practices in Asia is what Indians call yoga, the system that ‘yokes’ one’s consciousness to a spiritually liberating discipline.[31] 


The word “yoga” is derived from the same root as the word “yoke.”  The word yoga is often interpreted as meaning “union,” as in union of self with the eternal.  “Yoga is the cessation of the turnings of the mind[32].”  “What turnings of the mind,” you may wonder?  As I understand this, it is whenever you are caught up in trivialities or emotional dead-ends (greediness, jealousy, desire, envy, anger, gluttony, self-righteousness, etc.) or thinking the same types of thoughts over and over, without any resolution, your mind is turning.  The Buddhists call it “monkey mind” – visualize the mind as a monkey running around, impulsive and unproductive, to get the idea of its meaning. 


Turnings of the mind rarely lead to new or important insights.  The mind is accustomed to babbling all day, typically twice as often about negative (lack, wanting, anger, fear) than positive (wholeness, love, joy, generosity) topics.  Our minds constantly engage in this babble as a protective mechanism.  Yet in our modern world most of us are geared up to face inconsequential or imaginary threats that are exaggerated (to catch our attention) by media, politicians, advertisers, and other salespeople.  Rumination about what you don’t have, your missed opportunities, perceived threats against you, or what you want now can lead to feelings of depression and helplessness.


Beginning practice


“The aim of yoga is to eliminate the control that material nature exerts over the human spirit, to rediscover through introspective practice … a state of perfect equilibrium and absolute spiritual calm, an interior refuge in the chaos of worldly existence.[33]


In order to begin “yoking” the ceaseless turnings of the mind, we’ve got to have some interest in or curiousity about practicing.  Will-power is difficult to muster for anyone who doesn’t prioritize an activity, and prioritization only comes about when we deeply believe that the activity will be beneficial.  Our deep motivating beliefs rarely come through cerebral means – rarely from studying yoga philosophy.  Most of us are sold on evidence.  The belief in the benefits of yoga must come from somewhere, and in my opinion it typically comes from role models.  We probably all know someone who is fit, confident, and fun to be around who practices yoga.  Yogis often project an image of stability, balance, and peace-of-mind – traits that most of us are seeking in our hectic daily lives. 


Acceptance first


Beginning practice is easy, but continuing practice is quite difficult.  Pushing through the soreness and fatigue can be daunting for the beginning yoga student.  Naturally, we can be ambivalent about yoga, practicing one day and skipping the next … and that’s OK!  In fact, wherever you are in your practice, it’s OK!  That’s one of the principles of yoga, acceptance.  We’ve got to be honest with where we are and what’s going on with us.  Do we really want to prioritize yoga right now?  Is the practice worth it?  Will you be learning and growing doing something else?


A wholesome, complete, and nonjudgmental assessment of our abilities is necessary to begin yoga practice.  For example, if we don’t accept that our knees are tight, we may push them past their limits, injuring ourselves and requiring a lengthy break from practice.  Obviously, pain and injury are strict disciplinarians.  And if we can’t accept our physical limitations - if we treat yoga like a competitive sport - then we will soon injure ourselves and stifle further physical yoga practice.


Similarly, we must accept that we are all ambivalent about yoga.  Who really wants to wake up early every morning to spend an hour straining and sweating and observing how our crazy minds work?  If we’re perfectionists, then we may feel pressured to achieve certain flexibility goals, and we will resent that our bodies are not advancing as quickly as our ambitions.  If we’re lazy, then we’ll resent having to prioritize attending yoga classes.  If we’re competitive or have body issues, then we’ll spend a lot of time in class comparing ourselves, which can be tortuous.  All these things happen, and they always will happen for us, and we need a heavy dose of courage to get on the mat and face whatever comes up in these situations.  Sometimes we ‘hit the wall’ and don’t feel like doing yoga anymore, and that is exactly where we need to be.  Through all this, the practice continues.  “Practice, practice, practice…,” says Pattabhi Jois.


The 8 limbs of ashtanga yoga


I’ll go briefly into yoga philosophy here.  There are “eight limbs” of ashtanga yoga, the yoga of Patanjali, and only one of those limbs refers to the physical practice of the postures (asanas).  The other limbs guide us towards proper conduct in daily life.  The eight limbs are guidelines for living the life of a yogi.  The eight limbs (with no Sanskrit references) are:

  1. Discipline – Non-violence, honesty, non-stealing, moderation, equanimity.
  2. Observances inner and outer cleanliness; modesty and the contentment with what we have; keeping the body fit; studying oneself; contemplation on God.
  3. Yogic Postures – Harmonizing the flow of energy.
  4. Breath Control – Measure, control, and direction of the breath.
  5. Retraction of the Senses – Withdrawal from attachment to external objects and goals.
  6. Fixation of Attention – Practicing concentration.
  7. Devotion – Contemplation and discernment of truth.
  8. Fully Integrated Consciousness – Liberation from ego-identity.[34]


In the same way that practicing a sport improves performance over time, the practice of the eight limbs of yoga refines our physical, ethical, and emotional lives. 


Benefits of yoga practice:  Committment


So how does yoga create these benefits?  Practice is the key to re-sculpting our grey matter, and the style of practice determines the direction of neural reorganization.  This reorganization occurs through the mechanism of neuroplasticity.


I’ll start at the beginning.  Performing your practice every day on schedule, rain or shine, good mood or bad, is a demonstration of dedication and commitment.  Making a clear commitment, particularly to a long-term practice of self-development, is the first step towards clearing away nagging self-doubts, inconsistency, indecisiveness, and self-sabotage.  The regularity of the practice provides a daily ritual for centering the mind, and when the practice is performed devotionally (such as for the healing of humanity or dedicated to a higher power), it begins the internal cultivation of faith.


Gratitude and faith


When we practice cultivating states of mind, such as gratitude and faith, we are changing our physiological and emotional state.  In order to begin deliberate cultivation of qualities such as gratitude and faith, we must acknowledge that we have a choice.  We have a choice to influence, as best we can, how we create and experience our lives and feelings.


If we see others with gratitude – for what they’ve taught us, shared with us, or given us – then we ourselves will be filled with a sense of goodwill.  That goodwill towards others is ultimately reflected in our actions towards others.  Many spiritual practitioners and self-help gurus teach us to engage in daily gratitude sessions where we remember and feel gratitude[35].  In ashtanga yoga the opening chant is said in a tone of gratitude to all of the teachers who have passed down the practice over time, so the day is begun in the spirit of gratitude.  Gratitude is a trait intentionally cultivated by many happy and successful people[36].  


Faith is also necessary to a full, satisfying life, as well as a remedy to cynicism.  The future is always uncertain, and faith is the fuel that keeps us working towards something beyond our immediate needs and desires.  The faithful believe that everything will work out as it should.  Because of this deep belief, they often act to ensure the best possible future for themselves and the world.  In order to feel secure with ourselves and our place in the world, it is helpful to feel faith that our activities are meaningful. 




It is easy to become attached to the physical and mental benefits of yoga.  Practitioners may begin to see their practice and their teachers with a possessive or exclusive affection.  Teachers, such as Shankar Narayan Jois in Mysore, advise that the entire asana practice be performed as a devotional exercise.  In this light we are not performing yoga for the attainment of any goal, but as a demonstration of long-term commitment to the mystery and divinity of the universe.


This attitude of devotion is important for the cultivation of balanced mental health.  As with every other virtue, devotion can be taken too far.  Devotion, as do gratitude and faith, breaks us out of a narrow focus on our own interests.  Yet extreme devotion is occasionally used as a method of dissociating from and forgetting our problems. 


Mental illnesses such as depression, OCD, anxiety, and some psychoses are characterized by an excessive inward focus, in contrast to the outward foci of faith, gratitude, and devotion.  Sufferers of these illnesses often believe that their past losses (in the case of depression), future concerns (in the case of anxiety), safety rituals (in the case of OCD), and overall personal significance (in the case of some mild psychoses) are far more important to the rest of the world than they actually are.  This exaggerated sense of self-importance is often remedied by a gradual surrender to that which is greater than the individual (such as God, natural mystery, or the Divine).  In yogic parlance, it is the reunion of the individual self (Atman) with the universal soul (Brahman) through devotion that releases us from the illusions of daily life (Samsara).


Service and devotion in honor of something greater than oneself is fundamental to many spiritual paths.  Whether in devotion to God with prayer, in service to community with charity works, or in service to the ultimate good through waging war against evil, the focus of this type of devotion is kept outside of the self.  This point is not to be taken lightly – sects within most of the world’s major religions - such as Islam, Christianity, and Judaism - teach that surrender to God is the path to peace. 


Cultivating responsibility


The duty of showing up for practice daily, regardless of circumstances, is one way of making space for the self in the midst of the chaos of everyday living.  Additionally, the practice of Mysore-style ashtanga is typically self-led, and practitioners must be responsible to themselves and their practice to keep up the rigorous schedule.  In this way, the practice teaches self-discipline and enhances one’s sense of personal responsibility. 




Breath-control (the fourth limb of yoga) involves even, measured inhalation and exhalation through the nose during the entire yoga practice.  Each breath, inhale or exhale, corresponds with one defined position or movement.  This breath-control can be very difficult to hold during the more strenuous portions of the practice, as the desire to breathe quickly due to oxygen deprivation almost overwhelms the ability to remain steady and even.


Paradoxically, practicing breath control actually enhances relaxation later.  When we are smoothly inhaling and exhaling as our bodies are urging us to breathe more oxygen, we are training our minds to have control over feelings of panic and anxiety.  We teach ourselves that a racing heart and shortness of breath are all under our control.  For sufferers of panic disorder, the practice of yogic breath control may be one of the most effective treatments, in my opinion.


Stress and anxiety reduction


Deep-breathing into the belly, performed with regular inhale and exhale counts of “1, 2, 3 … 3, 2, 1…”, is an excellent treatment for acute panic and anxiety.  I’ve successfully taught deep-breathing techniques to many patients with anxiety disorders.  Ironically, ashtanga yoga requires practitioners to breathe in a manner that I consider anxiety-inducing throughout most of the practice. 


“Ujayi” breathing refers to the exercise of holding the throat slightly closed during yoga practice.  This slight constriction of the throat results in the “darth-vader”-style breathing heard in yoga shalas during practice.  Ujayi breathing produces shortness of breath for beginners during strenuous portions of the practice.  Additionally, Ujayi breathing creates resistance during inhalation and exhalation, opening and aerating the lungs during exhalation, while strengthening the respiratory musculature during inhalation. 


Ujayi breathing is performed along with a muscular contraction (muscular lock) of the abdomen called “uddiyana bandha.”  Udianyna bandha refers to the sustained contraction of the muscles of the abdomen, lifting up and in.  Holding in the belly (uddiyana bandha) makes it very difficult to breathe deeply, and one definitely can’t breathe deeply into the abdomen. 


The Ujayi and uddiyana bandha practices are the virtually the opposite of what anxious patients are taught in order to reduce their mental anxiety.  From the perspective of western medicine, the therapeutic mechanism of Ujayi breathing and uddiyana bandha may be through a kind of behavioral conditioning.  That is, beginning ashtanga yoga practitioners are frequently exposed to anxiety-inducing moments of chest-breathing and oxygen-hunger, wondering “how can I get enough air … I’m going to explode!”  This repetitive exposure to a stressful situation conditions the practitioner to other physiologically stressful situations.


Yoga practitioners who are breathing smoothly and shallowly though their noses, while simultaneously experiencing a racing heart and air-hunger, are training their bodies and minds to react smoothly and calmly when they are in a similar physiologic state in another context.  For example, a non-yogi who is terrified of public speaking, and who has no practice with controlling racing thoughts and shortness of breath before a speech, is likely to perform poorly when compared to a similarly terrified speaker who is a yogi.  The yogi has successful experience working through these same feelings in yoga practice.


Mental focus


One of the more odd aspects of ashtanga yoga practice, for new yogis, is holding “mula bandha”.   Mula banda refers to sustained contraction of the muscles of the perineum and external anus.  Holding both mula bandha and udianya bandha and performing Ujayi breathing is done throughout practice.  These three exercises provide three points of focus for the mind.  And just as the body in athletics, the mind can be excercised to improve its performance.  In this case, the mind is being excercised to improve its ability to focus.


Other mechanisms of mental focus include the maintenance of visual focus on certain points throughout the practice.  Instead of looking around the yoga shala at teachers or neighboring practitioners, the eyes are kept trained on one of three points, depending on the pose or movement being performed.  The three points of focus are not solely visual - they also focus mental attention.  The points of focus are the tip of the nose, the belly button, and the tip of the fingers.


I’ve outlined some of the mental and physical benefits of yoga above.  I wish you an excellent journey, however it leads you.  “Practice, and all is coming.”




[1] Marian S. Garfinkel; Atul Singhal; Warren A. Katz; David A. Allan; Rosemary Reshetar; H. Ralph Schumacher, Jr.  Yoga-Based Intervention for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Trial.  JAMA 1998 280: 1601-1603.


[2]   Singh V, Wisniewski A, Britton J, Tattersfield A.  Effect of yoga breathing exercises (pranayama) on airway reactivity in subjects with asthma.  Lancet. 1990 Jun 9;335(8702):1381-3.


[3] Vedanthan PK, Kesavalu LN, Murthy KC, Duvall K, Hall MJ, Baker S, Nagarathna S.  Clinical study of yoga techniques in university students with asthma: a controlled study.  Allergy Asthma Proc. 1998 Jan-Feb;19(1):3-9. 


[4] Patel C, North WR.  Randomised controlled trial of yoga and bio-feedback in management of hypertension.  Lancet. 1975 Jul 19;2(7925):93-5. 


[5] Garfinkel MS, Schumacher HR Jr, Husain A, Levy M, Reshetar RA.  Evaluation of a yoga based regimen for treatment of osteoarthritis of the hands.  J Rheumatol. 1994 Dec;21(12):2341-3. 


[6] Manchanda SC, Narang R, Reddy KS, Sachdeva U, Prabhakaran D, Dharmanand S, Rajani M, Bijlani R.  Retardation of coronary atherosclerosis with yoga lifestyle intervention.  J Assoc Physicians India. 2000 Jul;48(7):687-94.

[7] Bharshankar JR, Bharshankar RN, Deshpande VN, Kaore SB, Gosavi GB.  Effect of yoga on cardiovascular system in subjects above 40 years.  Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2003 Apr;47(2):202-6.


[8]  Jain SC, Uppal A, Bhatnagar SO, Talukdar B.  A study of response pattern of non-insulin dependent diabetics to yoga therapy.  Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1993 Jan;19(1):69-74

[9] Michael Doherty, Adrian Jones.  ABC of Rheumatology: FIBROMYALGIA SYNDROME.  BMJ 1995;310:386-389 (11 February).


[10]  Taneja I, Deepak KK, Poojary G, Acharya IN, Pandey RM, Sharma MP.  Yogic versus conventional treatment in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized control study.  Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2004 Mar;29(1):19-33.


[11]  Berger BG, Owen DR.  Mood alteration with yoga and swimming: aerobic exercise may not be necessary.  Percept Mot Skills. 1992 Dec;75(3 Pt 2):1331-43.

[12] Panjwani U, Selvamurthy W, Singh SH, Gupta HL, Thakur L, Rai UC.  Effect of Sahaja yoga practice on seizure control & EEG changes in patients of epilepsy.  Indian J Med Res. 1996 Mar;103:165-72.


[13]  Ramaratnam S, Sridharan K.  Yoga for epilepsy.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD001524. 

[14] Oken BS, Kishiyama S, Zajdel D, Bourdette D, Carlsen J, Haas M, Hugos C, Kraemer DF, Lawrence J, Mass M.  Randomized controlled trial of yoga and exercise in multiple sclerosis.  Neurology. 2004 Jun 8;62(11):2058-64.


[15] August 11, 2002, Sunday.  LESLIE KAMINOFF; WRITTEN WITH COELI CARR.  MY JOB; Mr. Fix It for Injured Yoga Enthusiasts.  MONEY AND BUSINESS/FINANCIAL DESK.  Late Edition - Final , Section 3 , Page 13 , Column 1.

[16] S. H. Hanus, T. D. Homer and D. H. Harter .  Vertebral artery occlusion complicating yoga exercises.  Archives of Neurology.  Vol. 34 No. 9, September 1977.

[17]  Fong KY, Cheung RT, Yu YL, Lai CW, Chang CM.  Basilar artery occlusion following yoga exercise: a case report.  Clin Exp Neurol. 1993;30:104-9.


[18]  DeBehnke DJ, Brady W.  Vertebral artery dissection due to minor neck trauma.  J Emerg Med. 1994 Jan-Feb;12(1):27-31.


[19] Netz Y, Lidor R.  Mood alterations in mindful versus aerobic exercise modes.  J Psychol. 2003 Sep;137(5):405-19. 


[20] Woolery A, Myers H, Sternlieb B, Zeltzer L.  A yoga intervention for young adults with elevated symptoms of depression.  Altern Ther Health Med. 2004 Mar-Apr;10(2):60-3.


[21] Harinath K, Malhotra AS, Pal K, Prasad R, Kumar R, Kain TC, Rai L, Sawhney RC.  Effects of Hatha yoga and Omkar meditation on cardiorespiratory performance, psychologic profile, and melatonin secretion.  J Altern Complement Med. 2004 Apr;10(2):261-8.


[22]  Berger BG, Owen DR.  Mood alteration with yoga and swimming: aerobic exercise may not be necessary.  Percept Mot Skills. 1992 Dec;75(3 Pt 2):1331-43.

[23]  Kennedy JE, Abbott RA, Rosenberg BS.  Changes in spirituality and well-being in a retreat program for cardiac patients.  Altern Ther Health Med. 2002 Jul-Aug;8(4):64-6, 68-70, 72-3


[24]  Shannahoff-Khalsa DS.  An introduction to Kundalini yoga meditation techniques that are specific for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.  J Altern Complement Med. 2004 Feb;10(1):91-101. 


[25] Woolery A, Myers H, Sternlieb B, Zeltzer L.  A yoga intervention for young adults with elevated symptoms of depression.  Altern Ther Health Med. 2004 Mar-Apr;10(2):60-3.


[26] Jensen PS, Kenny DT.  The effects of yoga on the attention and behavior of boys with Attention-Deficit/ hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).  J Atten Disord. 2004 May;7(4):205-16.


[27]  Sharma K, Shukla V.  Rehabilitation of drug-addicted persons: the experience of the Nav-Chetna Center in India.  Bull Narc. 1988;40(1):43-9. 


[28]  Shannahoff-Khalsa DS.  An introduction to Kundalini yoga meditation techniques that are specific for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.  J Altern Complement Med. 2004 Feb;10(1):91-101. 


[29] SHARON BEGLEY,Scans of Monks' Brains Show Meditation Alters Structure, Functioning” Wall Street Journal - SCIENCE JOURNAL. November 5, 2004.


[30] SHARON BEGLEY,Scans of Monks' Brains Show Meditation Alters Structure, Functioning” Wall Street Journal - SCIENCE JOURNAL. November 5, 2004.


[31] YOGA: Discipline of Freedom.  The Yoga Sutra Attributed to Patanjali.  Translated by Barbara Stoller Miller.  Bantam, New York:  1998. pp. ix.


[32]  YOGA: Discipline of Freedom.  The Yoga Sutra Attributed to Patanjali.  Translated by Barbara Stoller Miller.  Bantam, New York:  1998. pp 1.


[33] YOGA: Discipline of Freedom.  The Yoga Sutra Attributed to Patanjali.  Translated by Barbara Stoller Miller.  Bantam, New York:  1998. pp 1.






[36]  Hill, Napolean.  Think and Grow Rich.  Ballantine Books; Reissue edition (May 12, 1987)